Contact IMV

IMV Executive Assistant


tel. (612) 624-1926

fax. (612) 625-1108


18-242 Moos Tower
515 Delaware St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

General Questions:

Paul Jardine,
Associate Professor

Diag/Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry

Phone: (612) 624-0667



University of New Brunswick, Canada:

1990 B.S. Biology
1997 Ph.D. Virology

Research Interests

My interests revolve around the investigation of viral assembly and the description of biological motors at the molecular level. Both historically and experimentally, bacteriophages provide a perfect system to address both of these issues. My current focus is on the study of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging. A molecular motor assembles transiently to the phi29 prohead capsid and packages DNA to near crystalline density, powered by ATP hydrolysis.

To fully describe the mechanism of this motor, and gain understanding about molecular motors in general, I am part of a large interdisciplinary group comprised of specialists in structural biology, biophysics, molecular genetics and biochemistry. As a phage biochemist, my role is to translate the basic components of phi29 packaging from our robust in vitro packaging system into hands of specialist who can address the questions of interest our work has generated, as well as develop new approaches meant to interrogate the packaging mechanism.

Selected Recent Publications

  • Comolli, L.R., A.J. Spakowitz, C.E. Siegerist, P.J. Jardine, S.Grimes, D.L. Anderson, C. Bustamante and K.H. Downing. 2007. Three-dimensional architecture of the bacteriophage phi29 packaged genome and elucidation of its packaging process. Virology (in press).
  • Rickgauer, J.P., D. N. Fuller, S. Grimes, P.J. Jardine, D.L. Anderson, and D. E. Smith. 2007. Portal motor velocity and capsid pressure during viral DNA packaging in bacteriophage phi29. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 7; [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 17827233.
  • Fuller, D., J. P. Rickgauer, P. J. Jardine, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and D. E. Smith. 2007. Ionic effects on viral DNA packaging and portal motor function in bacteriophage phi29. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A; 104(27):11245-50.
  • Hugel T, Michaelis J, Hetherington CL, Jardine PJ, Grimes S, Walter JM, Falk W, Anderson DL, Bustamante C. 2007. Experimental Test of Connector Rotation during DNA Packaging into Bacteriophage varphi29 Capsids. PLoS Biol. 5(3):e59 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Jardine, P.J. and D. Anderson. 2006. DNA packaging in double-stranded DNA bacteriophages. In The Bacteriophages, R. Calendar, ed., Oxford Press.
  • Xiang Y, Morais MC, Battisti AJ, Grimes S, Jardine PJ, Anderson DL, Rossmann MG. 2006. Structural changes of bacteriophage phi29 upon DNA packaging and release. EMBO J. 25(21):5229-39.
  • Chemla YR, Aathavan K, Michaelis J, Grimes S, Jardine PJ, Anderson DL, Bustamante C. 2005. Mechanism of force generation of a viral DNA packaging motor. Cell. 122(5):683-92.
  • Grimes, S., P. J. Jardine, and D. Anderson. 2002. Bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging. Adv. Virus Res.58:255-294.
  • Simpson, A. A., P. G. Leiman, Y. Tao, Y. He, M. O. Badasso, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, and M. G. Rossmann. 2001. Structure determination of the head-tail connector of bacteriophage phi29. Acta Cryst. D57:1260-1269.
  • Morais, M. C., Y. Tao, N. H. Olson, S. Grimes, P. J. Jardine, D. L. Anderson, T. S. Baker, and M. G. Rossmann. 2001. Cryoelectron-microscopy image reconstruction of symmetry mismatches in bacteriophage phi29. J. Struct. Biol. 135:38-46.
  • Simpson, A. A., Y. Tao, P. G. Leiman, M. O. Badasso, Y. He, P. J. Jardine, N. H. Olson, M. C. Morais,
    S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, T. S. Baker, and M. G. Rossmann. 2000. Structure of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. Nature 408:745-750.
  • Jardine, P. J., M. C. McCormick, C. Lutze-Wallace, D. H. Coombs. 1998. The bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging apparatus targets the unexpanded prohead. J. Mol. Biol. 284(3):647-59.
  • Jardine, P. J. and D. H. Coombs. 1998. Capsid expansion follows the initiation of DNA packaging in bacteriophage T4. J. Mol. Biol. 284(3):661-72.



Featured News & Events

'Wisc-e-sota', a Joint UMN-UW Virology Training Grant Symposium was first held on Friday, Sepbember 20th, 2013 at the Uniiversity of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Cartwright Center. This was the inaugural collaborative symposium of the NIH T32-supported virology training programs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Talks and poster sessions were presented by students, postdocs and faculty. The second UMN-UW Virology Training Grant Symposium will be held in the Fall 2014. Details to follow.

The 2014 IMV Symposium will be held on May 12, 2014 and Mark Denison (Vanderbilt) and Bert Semler (UC-Irvine) will be the Keynote Speakers. Click on the link below to register and submit abstracts.

About the IMV icon

Read about bacteriophage phi 29 and why it matters.

IMV Timeline

Explore nearly a century's worth of discovery in the field of virology at the University of Minnesota.


"This Week in Virology" from professor Vincent Racaniello.